Infertility Causes explained Indepth..
Numerous medical conditions can contribute to infertility. Some of the main conditions are:
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
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Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a major cause of female infertility worldwide. PID is made up of a number of infections caused by different bacteria affecting the reproductive organs and parts of the intestine lying in the pelvic area. The areas of infection most often involved in infertility are the fallopian tubes, a condition known as salpingitis.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease may be a result of many different conditions that cause infections. Some of them are:
- Sexually transmitted diseases (the major cause). Chlamydia trachomatis is an infectious pathogen that causes around 75% of infertility by harming the fallopian tubes.
- Gonorrhea is responsible for most of the rest of the cases. (Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus))
- Pelvic tuberculosis
- Nonsterile abortions
- Ruptured appendix
PID may eventually cause scarring, formation of abscesses, and tubal damage resulting in infertility. About 20% of women who develop PID with symptoms become infertile. PID greatly increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy (fertilization occurring in the fallopian tubes). The seriousness of the infection, not the number of the infections, seems to cause the greatest risk for infertility.
- Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a condition where the ovaries produce high amounts of androgens (male hormones), in particular testosterone. PCOS occurs in about 10% of women, and amenorrhea (lacking in menstruation) or oligomenorrhea (infrequent menstruation) are quite common.
The overproduction of hormones by the ovaries prevent the follicles from producing a mature egg. Without egg production, the follicles swell with fluid and form cysts. Each time an egg is caught within the follicle, another cyst forms and the ovary swells even more, sometimes reaching the size of an orange. Without ovulation, progesterone is no longer produced.
The raised levels of androgens (termed hyperandrogenism) can cause obesity, facial hair, and acne, even though not all women with PCOS have such symptoms. PCOS sufferers also have a high risk for insulin resistance and about half of PCOS patients develop diabetes.